Purchase Best & Pure Quality of ACTH 1-39 Peptide Online & Know All About It
ACTH or adrenocorticotrophic hormone,is an endogenous peptide produced and secreted by the pituitary gland. ACTH 1-39 has a molecular mass of 45411 Daltons and is made up of molecules C207H308N56O58S1. The adrenocorticotropic hormone is one of the most vital compounds in the hypothalamic and adrenal axis. Recent studies revealed that this hormone is released as a response to combat stress-related conditions. A high level of ACTH 1-39 helps release cortisol from the adrenal cortex. Corticosteroids play an important role in dealing with stress situations. ACTH 1-39 has different mechanisms of action. The most common mode action is through activation and binding of its molecules to cell surface receptors. When the extracellular cells are activated, they initiate a complex biological process which in turn causes production and secretion of mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids and androgenic steroids. ACTH is made up of seven-member G-protein coupled receptor. The binding of this peptide to the ligand causes a signaling cascade and a wide array of conformational changes that aid in the production of catalase enzyme.
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Adenylate cyclase production is essential in a biological system because it plays a crucial role in enhancing the amount of adenosine monophosphate in cells. When adenosine monophosphate increases in cells, it causes the activation and production of protein kinase A. Protein kinase A or PKA is activated and this induces complex signaling pathways which initiate steroidogenesis process. During this process, cholesterol is converted to different steroidal compounds in the body. It is important to note that the biological pathway that causes transformation of cholesterol to different compounds varies from one species to another. The complexity increases as you move up the food chain. In some cases, the transformation of cholesterol gives different compounds such as testosterone, progesterone, cortisol, corticoids, and aldosterone,among other important compounds in the biological systems. ACTH 1-39 is an important peptide because it helps in production and release of corticosteroids from the adrenal cortex. The ACTH peptide is popularly known to increase lipoprotein formation and improves lipid intake. Moreover, it is important in increasing mitochondrial absorption of cholesterol where the compound undergoes activation and hydrolysis process.
Lipids undergo hydrolysis and activation process. These pathways lead to a formation of different biological compounds. ACTH is a peptide known to accentuate cholesterol cleavage and a rate-limiting step in steroidogenesis. Rate limiting step in steroidogenesis is crucial in the entire pathway because it dictates the amount of steroids formed at a particular time. It is imperative to note that this is a crucial step where cholesterol is converted into pregnenolone. Deficiency of the ACTH hormone or a failure of the receptors to bind to hormone on binding sites can result in severe defects in a biological system. Failure to respond to this hormone or low production usually results in hypothalamic pituitary axis problems. Recent research studies showed that most of these problems usually occurred as congenital disorders. A common case is a hypopituitarism. Findings from the study add a new feature to research and development in modern science and presents a new discovery in the treatment of Cushing’s syndrome, among other disorders related to the hormonal deficiency.
In addition, it is imperative to note that the ACTH peptide has a major effect in protecting the biological system from osteonecrosis. This usually occurs at the femoral head. Corticosteroid therapy is a new concept in medicine and researchers are still investigating if the method can be used to combat various problems such as vasopressors and hypotension. ACTH has an important role in a system and lack of sensitivity to the hormone or a lower production affect the expression of a sexual characteristic in females and males.
How Is ACTH 1-39 Related To Stress?
Stress is caused by many factors ranging from emotional, environmental and physical stress that contribute to various effects that affect the biological system of the organism. Cellular response to stressors determines the lifespan and production of cells to combat the situation. There are situations where the cells are completely damaged and excessive stress can affect other body parts in a biological system. This is essential especially parts of the system which help in the production of cells which is a crucial part of any synthesis because it maintains homeostasis. Stressors play a wide role in a maintaining homeostasis, especially resting state. The mode of response in a system determines how cells will undergo activation and production of signals to counter changes from the stress-related condition. Recent studies revealed that the most important components in stress system is HPA or hypothalamic-pituitary-axis. This axis is important in combating stress and stress related conditions.
According to a recent research done on mice, response to stress stimuli occurs after convergence of peripheral and neuronal inputs on minute paraventricular nucleolus and hypothalamus nuclei. When this happens, a complex signaling pathway is activated and synthesis of the ACTH 1-39 peptide is accentuated, therefore helping in synthesis and release of CRF or corticotropin stimulating hormone. CRF is made up of 41 amino acids and is released to the hypophyseal blood system before transportation to the target organ. CRF peptide binds to CRH sensitive receptors on corticotropes. This in turn stimulates G-coupled protein receptors on corticotropin releasing hormone receptors to produce intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate. This process is crucial because it causes the production of intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate. Activation of this pathway is known to increase the production of a compound called POMC or proopiomelanocortin hormone. An increase of this compound in a biological system is vital in activating and releasing of beta-endorphins and adrenocorticotropic hormone.
Although CRH is regarded as the major hypothalamic releasing factor of ACTH peptide, there are other compounds such as norepinephrine, vasopressin and oxytocin, which also stimulate the production of ACTH hormone in small volumes. After administration of ACTH 1-39 on the test subject, it is carried in the blood to the target organ and in this context, adrenal cortex. Once this peptide is in the adrenal cortex, it helps in the secretion of various glucocorticoids. Recent studies showed that ACTH peptide accentuates production of corticosterone. Glucocorticoids have an immediate metabolic effect on the biological system and in most cases, it is crucial in stimulating catabolism of proteins while inhibiting peripheral glucose intake.
Role of ACTH 1-39 in Cellular Response
Recent studies indicated that ACTH 1-39 peptide is vital in enhancing response to various environmental aspects. The hypothalamic pituitary axis is important in responding to various conditions. Glucocorticoids released after the administration of ACTH 1-39 peptide are important in reducing or turning off signals entering into the biological system. An elevated level of glucocorticoids reduces synthesis and release of CRH from the hypothalamus. This in turn causes suppression of POMC production and release of adrenocorticotropic hormone from the pituitary gland. Glucocorticoids are important in feeding higher brain centers. These allow modulation of neuronal and stimulus input. As a finely tuned biological system in an organism, an organism can respond to various changes in its environment and support any biological system. Any changes to cellular mechanisms and production of various components in the system will help prevent cellular damage. Alteration of HPA system results in an impaired negative feedback stimulation of glucocorticoids and adopting of various changes will occur in the system.
When hormonal production system is affected, the organism cannot respond to environmental and stressors effectively. This causes the development of various conditions and poor mechanical systems that result in Cushing’s syndrome, anxiety disorder, depression and anorexia, among other problems. Researchers are still trying to identify how ACTH 1-39 can be used as a modern peptide to alleviate various conditions. Understanding the mechanism of action of the ACTH peptide is essential in knowing how it brings about various biological changes. Research done on mice indicated that the changes in the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone are essential for the organism to survive in its environment. The contribution of hypothalamic peripheral glucocorticoids and CRH to the organism’s biological system plays a key role in accentuating the release of various peptides in the system. Studies indicated that the potency and efficacy of the ACTH peptide via alteration of corticosterone in mice and adrenalectomy is essential in alleviating these adrenal related conditions. Medical research showed that the peptide could be used in the future to combat adrenal related conditions.
Studies done on CHR deficient mice showed that the mice showed chronic glucocorticoids insufficiency. This research concluded that the mice had impaired stress response systems. Impaired stress response system has a negative working system on the test organism and plasma levels of ACTH were high despite the absence of CRH. This finding has brought a new dimension in research and development. Test mice indicated that there were newer aspects of research and development if initiated and implemented properly. It could result in understanding ACTH and its mode of action. While the mechanism of action is associated with increased secretion and synthesis of the ACTH peptide. Research showed that the ACTH peptide adds a new twist to adrenocorticotropic releasing hormone research. Peripheral glucocorticoids regulate ACTH and POMC production.
Numerous studies conducted on the ACTH peptide on anterior lobe of pituitary gland have shown that an increase in POMC transcription is essential in accentuating various biological systems that contribute to enhanced functionality. Identification and characterization of genomic sequence and transcription that mediate changes in the peptide sequence would bring about a new concept in research and development.
Anterior pituitary gland cell cultures showed that they are dependent on calcium. Alteration of the sequence resulted in an increase of secretion from the pituitary gland. Adrenocorticotropic hormone activity depends on calcium and scientists are looking for an avenue for bypassing numerous scientific phenomena to help improve efficacy and potency of the peptide. In-vitro studies indicated that data presented on mice was crucial in finding an alternative solution to various problems affecting the biological system.
Additional studies revealed that regulation of ACTH secretion can help elucidate the functions of CRH and the mechanisms involved in the production of these compounds. This phenomenon is crucial because of the potential which the ACTH peptide has in various scientific research and medical studies in modern science.
Role of ACTH 1-39 in Testosterone Production
Recent research studies on mice indicated that Leydig cells involved in the formation of steroids depend on the luteinizing hormone to accentuate their functionality. According to the findings of this study, identification factors involved in regulation of Leydig cells, adult and fetal testes of mice were compared and the data obtained recorded. It is essential to understand that the dynamics of study, especially the environment and mechanism of action of a peptide, plays an essential role. According to research and study, ACTH accentuates receptor called melanocortin receptor 2 or MC2R. This receptor is vital in causing a wide array of functions in a biological system and receptorsinduce production of testosterone in the system. Polymerase chain reaction studies indicated that MC2R is expressed in fetal testis and the amount of this genetic material is a thousand times more in adult mice. It is essential to note that th fetal or neonates testes produce hormone testosterone at a higher rate than adult testes. Isolated cellular identification and enhanced hormonal production are essential aspects to consider during research.
Neonatal testis steroidogenic response after incubation with ACTH 1-39 showed that it had ten times more amount of testosterone than adult testis. This is a crucial experiment because even at low concentration, ACTH 1-39 can induce the secretion of hormones from the target organs. Fetal testosterone levels remained normal after administration of ACTH 1-39 and the peptide did not play any significant role in Leydig functionality. Luteinizing and ACTH regulate steroidogenesis in the testing and this is more especially in fetal mice. At this point, Leydig cells are sensitive to ACTH 1-39 and plays a crucial role in accentuating the production of testosterone. Fetal development and production of testicular testosterone is essential for growth and development. Modern scientific research indicated that the ACTH peptide could present a new avenue for medical research and analysis for various scientific experiments. It is essential to note that peptides supplied in the market are for research purposes only and human consumption is not allowed.